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Second Anglo Mysore War: Causes, Events, and Outcome

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The Second Anglo-Mysore War was a conflict between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore that lasted from 1780 to 1784. The war was fought in southern India and was influenced by the French and Dutch Revolutions. Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore, allied with France and the Dutch, and invaded British territories in India. The British captured Mahé, the French port, and the Dutch outpost of Mahé, but were defeated by Hyder Ali at Pollilur. The war ended with the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore, which restored the status quo ante bellum.

The Second Anglo-Mysore War was a significant event in the history of India. It was fought during a time of political and social upheaval, with the French and Dutch Revolutions having a significant impact on the conflict. The war was also influenced by the international politics of the time, with France and the Dutch Republic supporting Mysore in their fight against the British. The conflict was characterized by several important battles, including the Battle of Pollilur, which saw Hyder Ali’s forces defeat the British. The war ultimately ended with the Treaty of Mangalore, which restored the pre-war status quo.

Causes of the War

The Second Anglo-Mysore War was fought between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore from 1780 to 1784. The war was caused by a number of factors, including:

  • Growing tensions between Mysore and the British: The British East India Company had been expanding its territories in India, which led to growing tensions between the British and Mysore. Mysore was a powerful kingdom in South India, and its ruler, Hyder Ali, was concerned about the British encroaching on his territory.
  • Hyder Ali’s alliance with the French: Hyder Ali formed an alliance with the French, who were also present in India at the time. This alliance was seen as a threat by the British, who were concerned about the French gaining a foothold in India.
  • The British support for Mysore’s enemies: The British had formed alliances with Mysore’s enemies, including the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad. This support for Mysore’s enemies was seen as a provocation by Hyder Ali.
  • The British seizure of Mahé: The British seized the French-held port of Mahé in 1779, which was seen as a breach of the treaty between Mysore and the British. This seizure was a major cause of the war.
  • The British support for the Nawab of Arcot: The British had been supporting the Nawab of Arcot, who was in conflict with Mysore. This support was seen as an act of aggression by Hyder Ali.

These factors, among others, led to the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

Key Figures

Hyder Ali

Hyder Ali was the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. He was known for his military prowess and strategic thinking. He modernized the Mysorean army and introduced new tactics that proved successful in battle. Hyder Ali was also a patron of the arts and literature, and he encouraged the growth of the Mysorean economy.

Lord Warren Hastings

Lord Warren Hastings was the Governor-General of India during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. He was a key figure in British India, and he played a significant role in shaping the British Empire in India. Hastings was known for his administrative reforms, which included the establishment of the Supreme Court of Calcutta and the introduction of the Permanent Settlement system.

Sir Eyre Coote

Sir Eyre Coote was a British general who played a major role in the Second Anglo-Mysore War. He was known for his military skills and bravery. Coote led the British forces in several key battles, including the Battle of Porto Novo and the Battle of Pollilur. He was instrumental in the British victory in the war.

In conclusion, Hyder Ali, Lord Warren Hastings, and Sir Eyre Coote were key figures in the Second Anglo-Mysore War. Their actions and decisions had a significant impact on the outcome of the war.

Major Battles

Battle of Pollilur

The Battle of Pollilur was a significant battle fought between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. The battle took place on September 10, 1780. The Mysorean army, led by Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan, defeated the British forces commanded by Sir Hector Munro. The Mysoreans effectively used rocket artillery against the closely massed British forces, causing significant damage and casualties. The British suffered a crushing defeat, losing almost their entire army, including their artillery and ammunition.

Siege of Tellicherry

The Siege of Tellicherry was a battle fought between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. The siege took place in April 1783 when Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore, attacked the British-held port of Tellicherry (now known as Thalassery), which was an important trade center on the Malabar Coast. The British forces, led by Captain Thomas Bowser, successfully defended the port against the Mysorean army, which was forced to retreat after suffering heavy casualties.

These two battles were significant in the Second Anglo-Mysore War, with the Battle of Pollilur being a major turning point in the conflict. The Mysoreans’ effective use of rocket artillery in this battle paved the way for future developments in rocket technology, which would be used in later conflicts. The Siege of Tellicherry was important because it demonstrated the British’s ability to defend their positions against Mysorean attacks.

Treaty of Mangalore

The Treaty of Mangalore was signed on March 11, 1784, between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore, effectively ending the Second Anglo-Mysore War. The treaty was signed by Sir Archibald Campbell on behalf of the British, and Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore, on behalf of the kingdom.

As per the terms of the treaty, both parties agreed to return the captured territories and prisoners to each other. The British returned all the territories they had captured during the war, including Mangalore, and Mysore returned all the territories they had captured from the British, including the forts of Chittledroog and Gooty.

In addition to the territorial exchanges, the treaty also established a mutual alliance between the two parties. This alliance was aimed at maintaining peace and stability in the region, and it required both parties to come to each other’s aid in the event of an attack from a third party.

The Treaty of Mangalore was significant in that it marked the end of the Second Anglo-Mysore War and established a period of relative peace between the British and Mysore. However, it did not resolve all the issues between the two parties, and tensions continued to simmer beneath the surface.

Despite the treaty, Tipu Sultan continued to view the British with suspicion and was determined to maintain the independence of his kingdom. He embarked on a series of military and diplomatic initiatives aimed at strengthening his position and reducing British influence in the region.

Aftermath and Impact

The Second Anglo-Mysore War had a significant impact on the political and economic landscape of India. Here are some of the key takeaways from the aftermath of the war:

  • Treaty of Mangalore: The Treaty of Mangalore was signed in 1784, which ended the war between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore. The treaty restored the status quo ante bellum, which means that both parties agreed to return to the same state they were in before the war. The treaty also included provisions for prisoner exchange and the return of territories that were captured during the war.
  • Decline of the Kingdom of Mysore: The Second Anglo-Mysore War weakened the Kingdom of Mysore, which was once a powerful force in southern India. The war caused significant damage to the kingdom’s economy and infrastructure, and many of its key leaders were killed in battle. The kingdom was further weakened by the death of Hyder Ali in 1782, who was the driving force behind the kingdom’s military and economic success.
  • British Expansion: The Second Anglo-Mysore War was one of the many conflicts that allowed the British East India Company to expand its control over India. The war gave the British control over key territories in southern India, including the city of Bangalore. This expansion allowed the British to increase their economic and political influence in the region.
  • Impact on Tipu Sultan: The Second Anglo-Mysore War had a significant impact on the life of Tipu Sultan, who was the son of Hyder Ali and the ruler of Mysore after his father’s death. Tipu Sultan was only a teenager when the war started, but he played a key role in the war effort. After the war, Tipu Sultan became the de facto ruler of Mysore and worked to rebuild the kingdom’s economy and military.
  • Impact on the French: The Kingdom of Mysore was a key ally of the French during the war, and the defeat of Mysore weakened the French position in India. The French were forced to withdraw from many of their territories in southern India, which allowed the British to gain more control over the region.

Overall, the Second Anglo-Mysore War was a significant event in the history of India. The war had a lasting impact on the political and economic landscape of the region and helped to shape the future of India.

Legacy of the Second Anglo Mysore War

The Second Anglo Mysore War left a lasting impact on the history of India. Here are some of the key legacies of the war:

1. Rise of Tipu Sultan: The war saw the rise of Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore, who played a key role in the conflict. Despite the eventual defeat of Mysore, Tipu Sultan’s reputation as a skilled military leader and strategist only grew. He went on to become one of the most prominent figures in Indian history, and is still remembered today as a hero by many.

2. British Expansion: The war allowed the British to expand their influence in India, particularly in the south. The defeat of Mysore weakened the kingdom, and allowed the British to gain control over key territories and resources. This expansion paved the way for the eventual establishment of British colonial rule in India.

3. Impact on Indian Society: The war had a significant impact on Indian society, particularly in terms of the relationship between the British and the Indian people. The conflict was marked by brutal violence and atrocities committed by both sides, which left a lasting legacy of mistrust and resentment.

4. Influence on Indian Nationalism: The Second Anglo Mysore War, along with other conflicts between the British and Indian kingdoms, played a key role in the development of Indian nationalism. The war highlighted the need for Indian unity and resistance against British colonialism, and inspired many Indian leaders to fight for independence.

Overall, the Second Anglo Mysore War was a pivotal moment in the history of India, with far-reaching consequences that are still felt today.

Frequently Asked Questions

Who won the Second Anglo-Mysore War?

The Second Anglo-Mysore War was won by the British East India Company. The war lasted from 1780 to 1784, and the British were able to defeat the Mysorean army led by Tipu Sultan. The British victory was attributed to the superior military tactics and technology of the British forces.

What were the causes of the Second Anglo-Mysore War?

The Second Anglo-Mysore War was caused by a combination of factors. One of the main causes was the expansionist policies of the Kingdom of Mysore, which threatened the British East India Company’s interests in India. Another cause was the support of the French for Mysore, which led to a conflict between Britain and France in India.

What was the significance of the Second Anglo-Mysore War?

The Second Anglo-Mysore War was significant because it marked the beginning of the end of the Kingdom of Mysore. The defeat of Mysore weakened the power of the kingdom and paved the way for the British to gain more control over India. The war also demonstrated the strength of the British military and their ability to defeat a powerful Indian kingdom.

What were the effects of the Second Anglo-Mysore War?

The effects of the Second Anglo-Mysore War were far-reaching. The defeat of Mysore led to the establishment of British dominance in India, which lasted until India gained independence in 1947. The war also led to the death of Tipu Sultan, who was a strong leader and a symbol of resistance against British rule.

What was the 2nd Battle of Anglo-Mysore?

The 2nd Battle of Anglo-Mysore was a battle fought between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. The battle took place in 1781 and was fought near the town of Pollilur. The British were able to defeat the Mysorean army and capture a large number of prisoners.

Who initiated the Second Anglo-Mysore War?

The Second Anglo-Mysore War was initiated by the British East India Company. The British were concerned about the expansionist policies of the Kingdom of Mysore and wanted to protect their interests in India. The British also wanted to weaken the French influence in India, which was supporting Mysore.

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