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Chandrayaan 3 – India’s Next Mission to the Moon


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As with other countries, India is increasing its efforts to explore the lunar surface with Chandrayaan 3. This mission includes both a lunar lander and rover system which could touch down on its surface.

The spacecraft will use Kepler’s second law to enter an elliptical orbit around Earth before diverting toward the Moon for landing on August 23.

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The spacecraft will have the capability of transmitting high-resolution images back to Earth, including panoramas from around the lander site. Furthermore, it will conduct various in-situ experiments designed to gather information on Moon’s surface and atmosphere.

ISRO hopes Chandrayaan-3 will join the ranks of countries who have successfully landed a spacecraft on the lunar surface, such as the United States, Russia, and China. Should Chandrayaan-3 achieve success, this would demonstrate India’s technological advances against other global powers to land softly on the Moon.

A satellite will guide the lander to an area where it can land safely. In addition, this spacecraft will carry Pragyan, a six-wheeled rover that will conduct in-situ science on the Moon’s surface as well as take photographs and collect environmental data such as temperatures, magnetic fields and structure of its crust and mantle.

The lander will be powered by a two-tonne propulsion module and sent into an orbit 100 kilometers (62 miles) above the Moon’s surface, where it will lower itself down towards a spot in its south polar region where ice has been found in permanently shadowed craters. After touching down on its target site, both vehicles will separate as soon as the rover and lander have come in contact with its target surface area.

Propulsion Module

The Propulsion Module will carry Lander and Rover configuration to its final 100 km circular polar orbit on the lunar surface, as well as house an in-situ chemical analysis payload for in situ chemical analysis of lunar surface samples. Launched using GSLV-Mk3 launch vehicle, it will ensure integrated configuration reaches lunar orbit in time.

Chandrayaan-3 will feature an innovative Propulsion Module (PM), to showcase advanced propulsion technologies. It will travel from launch vehicle injection through 100 km circular polar lunar orbit and fire its thrusters as required during separation between Lander and Rover modules to demonstrate end-to-end landing and mobility on the lunar surface.

Cold gas and warm gas thruster technologies are available for small spacecraft missions, and several have been flight-proven on satellites. These devices are capable of producing high delta-v thrust at small power consumption with their non-toxic propellant such as sulfur hexafluoride propellant. Furthermore, their simple designs, low mass footprint, and welded titanium construction all ensure high reliability of operation.

Figure 4.14 depicts the VACCO AFRL Propulsion Unit for CubeSats (PUC), which is a 1U propulsion system using R236fa propellant to provide up to 186 N-s of impulse through eight thrusters. Having undergone more than 70,000 cold gas firings for testing purposes alone, this PUC is an ideal choice for CubeSats that require high delta-v thrust.


Solar-powered rovers will be deployed to explore the lunar surface and collect information on its composition to help scientists better understand its geology. ISRO has learned from its first Moon mission failure and now hopes to become the fourth country to successfully land on its surface.

The spacecraft will be launched using an LVM3 rocket from Sriharikota’s Satish Dhawan Space Centre using LVM3 rocket, reaching lunar orbit within approximately one month after launch and then disengaging from propulsion module before landing softly onto surface of Moon for soft landing attempts.

To accomplish the landing, the lander and rover will employ various sensors to measure their altitude and velocity as well as cameras to monitor their surroundings and a laser that detects any sign of liquid water on the Moon’s surface.

Rover has experienced rapid user growth since the pandemic started and is eating away at Wag’s market share despite their safety issues. But questions still linger regarding trustworthiness of this popular service provider. Venky Ganesan, board member and partner at Menlo Ventures who invested early in Rover told CNN Business that investing heavily in safety remains their top priority.


Indian space agency engineers remain hopeful about India’s Chandrayaan-2 mission despite its failure. The spacecraft will aim to explore the moon’s unexplored South Pole region while carrying India’s hopes and aspirations as stated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. It consists of both a landing module and propulsion module which will land safely on lunar surface within one lunar day, according to Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

India’s launch of Chandrayaan 3 on Friday from Satish Dhawan Space Center at Sriharikota marks a historic step in their pursuit to join America, Russia, and China as moon-landing nations. Huge crowds turned out to witness this momentous event!

After being separated from their propulsion module, the lander and rover will enter a parking orbit around the 100 km x 100 km radius of the moon. From this position they will alter their trajectory so as to come within 30 kilometres of lunar surface – known as trans lunar injection phase.

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