The Indian Independence Movement
About Indian Independence Movement
The British East India Company that entered India in 1600 came solely for trade purposes but soon close to the decline of Mughal Empire in the first half of the eighteenth century the British seized the opportunity to get a firm foothold in Indian politics.
It was only after the Battle of Plassey in 1757 AD during which the East India Company’s Indian army under Robert Clive defeated Siraj-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Bengal, the company established itself as a major player in Indian affairs.
Soon later they expanded their foothold around the country, involving the Battle of Buxar in 1764 where Tipu Sultan was defeated and most of South came under the rule of British rule.
Soon after battling the Marathas they annexed powers in Punjab and other areas around the country.
The first rebellion of India against the British started in the eighteenth century by
- Puli Thevar, then
- Pazhassi Raja
- Veerapandiya Kattabomman
- Paika Bidroha.
In 1806 the Vellore Sepoy Mutiny took place in Madras. But in 1857 the first and the most large scale rebellion broke out against the East India Company in the northern and central India also known as the Sepoy Mutiny which was inspired by Mangal Pandey.
The consequences of this resistance led to a widespread awareness and rise of organized movements against the British.
By 1900 there was a rise of a Nationalist Movement in India, and the Congress had emerged as an all-India political organization.
During this time Bal gangadhar Tilak embraced the idea of Swaraj the first time in India as the future of India. Soon Tilak’s ideas were backed by Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai.
Hence giving them the name Lal-Bal-Pal. Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Dadabhai Naoroji wanted reforms under the British Rule.
By 1905 under Lord Curzon the partition of the province of Bengal took place and the British established the divide and rule between the Hindus and Muslims to disrupt the movements against them.
In 1906 the All India Muslim League was founded by the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference at Dhaka and the very same year Muhammad Ali Jinnah joined the Indian National Congress.
The First World War broke out with unprecedented support towards Britain and India supported the British even with Britain’s initial skepticism against Indians.
Princes of India sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition. But the wartime conspiracies filled the British officials preparing them to use extreme force to frighten the Indians into submission.
After the war, there was continued pressure put on Indians with heavy taxes to be paid and the British reforms of the carrot and stick approach only worsened the case.
This continues for a few years and that’s when Mr. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi came to India in 1915 from South Africa where he had been opposing the discrimination against the labourers.
Soon Gandhi’s ideas of civil disobedience and nonviolence gained popularity and after Satyagraha in different parts of the country like Champaran Bihar etc.
Annie Beasant and Ali Brothers and similar popular leaders were detained and in this time that the agitation of the Indians led the British to attack demonstrations from taking place.
One such attack was on the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar, Punjab in 1919. After the massacre, a complete rift broke out which could not be bridged without complete freedom. Hence started the
- First Non Cooperation Movement
- Poorna Swaraj (Simon Commission)
- Karachi Congress Session in 1931
- Dandi March and Civil Disobedience
- Lahore Resolution
- Revolutionary movement for Indian Independence (like Alipore bomb case, Delhi-Lahore conspiracy)
These movements lead to the upcoming of a lot of leaders during this time fighting for the freedom of India. Finally, the final process of the Indian independence movement started in 1937.
In 1942 the congress launched the Quit India movement and the Indian National Army by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.
Finally, by 1947 the Indian Independence Act 1947 was passed and 14th August 1947 was declared a separate nation from India celebrating India’s independence on 15th August 1947.
The constitution of India was developed and finished on 26th January of 1950 declaring Republic Day for India declaring democracy and Jawahar Lal Nehru as the Prime Minister of India.
Throughout the rebellion and movement against the British many strong leaders surfaced who are infamous and remembered till today for their courageous act for the freedom of the country.
Following are the list of freedom fighters of India:
- Shaheed Bhagat Singh
- Puspa Lata Das
- Bhim Sen Sachar
- Acharya Kriplani
- Alluri Sitaram Raju
- Veer Savarkar
- Usha Mehta
- Sister Nivedita
- Ramabai Ranade
- Swarnakumari Devi
- Chandramukhi Basu
- Sunendranath Banerjee
- Subhash Chandra Bose
- Shivaram Rajguru
- Rani Lakshmi Bai
- Rash Behari Bose
- Ram Singh Kuka
- Ram Prasad Bismil
- Motilal Nehru
- Ram Manohar Lohia
- Mahatma Gandhi
- Mahadev Govind Ranade
- Lala Lajpat Rai
- Lala Har Dayal
- Chandra Shekhar Azad
- Bipin Chandra Pal
- Ashfaqulla Khan
- Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
- Aruna Asaf Ali
- Jatindra Mohan Sengupta
- Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
- Sagarmal Gopa
- Begum Hazrat Mahal
- Bal Gangadhar Tilak
- Dadabhai Naoroji
- Lakshmi Sahgal
- Khudiram Bose
- Madan Mohan Malaviya
- Nellie Sengupta
- Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad
- Mangal Pandey